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The Sacramento Kings are a professional basketball team based in Sacramento, California. The Kings are members of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
The franchise that would become the Sacramento Kings initially started in the city of Rochester, New York, as the Rochester Royals of the National Basketball League.
At the conclusion of World War II, the United States lacked a major professional basketball league. The National Basketball League decided to fill that void by stepping up from a regional semi-pro league into the nation's premier professional basketball loop. One of the top professional teams in the country was the Rochester Pros, an independent barnstorming team run by Lester Harrison. They were invited to join the NBL for the 1945–46 season. The team, which had long been known as the Seagrams before briefly adopting the nickname "Pros", held a name-the-team contest and selected the nickname "Royals".
Success for the Royals was almost immediate. Founded in 1945 by owner/coach/general manager Les Harrison (Hall of Famer) and his brother and co-owner/business manager Jack Harrison, the team won the NBL championship in 1945-46. The team was led by Bob Davies, Al Cervi, George Glamack, and Otto Graham, a future NFL Hall of Famer, who, in his only season in professional basketball, won a league championship before moving on to football and leading the Cleveland Browns to ten straight championship games, winning seven.
The following season, NBL Governors voted that the regular season "Pennant Winner" would be declared as the official NBL Champion, and the post-season would consist of a separate, non-championship tournament. The Royals finished 31–13 (.705), capturing their second NBL Championship in as many years, but lost in the post-season tournament finals to the Chicago American Gears.
The following season the NBL scrapped their one-year "pennant" experiment, and from that point forward the post-season playoffs would determine the NBL Champion. The Royals again finished with the league's best overall record at 44–16, but lost to George Mikan's Minneapolis Lakers 3 games to 1 in the NBL Finals.
In 1948, the Royals moved to the Basketball Association of America along with the Fort Wayne Pistons, Minneapolis Lakers, and Indianapolis (Kautskys) Jets. A year later, the BAA merged with the NBL to become the National Basketball Association.
The Royals' twelve-year stay in Rochester featured the services of nine future members of the Basketball Hall of Fame, one member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and a Hollywood Walk of Famer: Al Cervi, Bob Davies, Alex Hannum, Les Harrison, Red Holzman, Arnie Risen, Maurice Stokes, Jack Twyman, Bobby Wanzer, Otto Graham, and Chuck Connors.
In 1957, the Royals were moved to Cincinnati, Ohio, by the Harrison brothers. Despite winning the NBA title in 1951, the Royals had drawn poorly and lost money for five straight years in Rochester and were under pressure to seek a larger market. Cincinnati, which had a strong college basketball fan base and no NFL franchise to compete with, was deemed the best choice. The fact that local college stars Jack Twyman, Dave Piontek and Tom Marshall were on the roster helped make fans quickly.
During the team's first NBA draft in Cincinnati, the team netted future Hall Of Famer Clyde Lovellette and former star guard George King. They teammed with the 1-2 punch of Maurice Stokes and Twyman to produce a budding contender in the team's very first season in the Queen City. Injury to Marshall and the loss of star guard Si Green to military service dropped the team into a tie for second place in the NBA Western Division during the 1957-58 season's second half.
In the season's finale, All-Pro star Maurice Stokes struck his head when he fell after pursuing a rebound. He shook off the effects of the fall, even as he had briefly been unconscious. After Game One in the playoffs three days later, Stokes' head injury was greatly aggravated by airplane cabin pressure during the flight back to Cincinnati for Game Two. He suffered a seizure and was permanently hospitalized, a tragedy that greatly shook the team. Stokes, a tremendous talent who could play center, forward and guard, was 2nd in the NBA in rebounds and 3rd in assists, a double-feat only Wilt Chamberlain has matched for a full season. Without Stokes, the team nearly folded.
Fellow All-Star Twyman rose to All-Pro level the next two seasons for Cincinnati, even as the team posted two 19-win seasons. The 1958-59 Cincinnati team featured five rookies, with Lovellette, King and other key players having left the team in the wake of Stokes' tragic injury. The Harrisons, under pressure to sell to a local group, sold to a local ownership headed by Thomas Woods. The fact that Stokes was simply dumped by the team and the new ownership infuriated many.
Jack Twyman came to aid of his teammate and even legally adopted Stokes. Raising funds for Stokes' medical treatment, Twyman helped his fallen teammate until his death in April, 1970. The 1973 feature film Maurie, which co-starred actors Bernie Casey and Bo Svenson, later dramatized their story.
Shootng often for the beleaguered team, Twyman was the second NBA player ever to average 30 points per game for a full NBA season. Both Twyman and Stokes were later named Hall of Famers. In 1960, the team was able to land local superstar Oscar Robertson. Robertson led a team that included Twyman, Wayne Embry, Bob Boozer, Bucky Bockhorn, Tom Hawkins and Adrian Smith over the next three seasons. The Royals reversed their fortunes with Robertson and rose to title contender. An ownership dispute in early 1963 scuttled the team's playoff chances when new owner Louis Jacobs booked a circus for Cincinnati Gardens for the week of the playoff series versus the champion Boston Celtics. Jacobs, an aloof owner, would prove no ally to the team's title hopes.
In late 1963, another local superstar, Jerry Lucas, joined the team. The Royals rose to second-best record in the NBA. From 1963-66, the Royals contended strongly against Boston and the Philadelphia 76ers, but fell short of their title hopes. The team's star players throughout the 1960s were Oscar Robertson and Jerry Lucas. Robertson met with individual success, averaging a triple-double in 1961-62 and winning the Most Valuable Player award in 1964. Robertson was a league-leading scorer and passer each season. Lucas was Rookie Of the Year in 1964, led the league in shooting, and later averaged 20 rebounds per game over three seasons. Both were All-NBA First Team selections multiple times.
The Royals were an also-ran throughout the era anyway. The team failed to keep promising players and played in the tough NBA East division, dominated by the Boston Celtics, even as a Baltimore team played in the West Division for three years, denying the team likely visits to the NBA Finals.
In 1966, the team was sold to a pair of brothers named Max and Jeremy Jacobs. That same season, the Royals began playing some of their home games in neutral sites such as Cleveland (until the Cavaliers began play in 1970), Dayton & Columbus, which was the norm for the rest of the Royals tenure in the Queen City.
New coach Bob Cousy, a loyal Boston Celtic, traded Lucas in 1969. Robertson was traded to Milwaukee in 1970, where he would immediately win an NBA title. The declining franchise left Cincinnati shortly thereafter, moving to Kansas City in 1972.
The Royals were renamed the Kings because Kansas City already had the Royals baseball team. The basketball team agreed to change its nickname, even though it had used the name for 25 years before the baseball team was established. The team initially divided its home games between Kansas City and Omaha until 1975, when it abandoned the Omaha market. During that time the team was officially called the "Kansas City-Omaha Kings". The team netted a new superstar in Nate Archibald, who led the league in scoring and assists.
While still in Cincinnati, the Kings introduced a most unusual uniform design, which placed the player's surname below his number. The design remained intact through the first several seasons of the team's run in Sacramento, even when the shade of blue on the road uniforms was changed from royal blue to powder blue, and the script "Kansas City" which adorned the road jerseys was scrubbed after the move in favor of a repeat of the "Kings" script on the home shirts.
The Kings had some decent players throughout. Tom Van Arsdale, the shooting forward, "Jumpin" Johnny Green, and Matt Guokas helped Archibald in the first year in Kansas City. Toby Kimball was a fan favorite. Jimmy Walker teamed with Archibald as the Kings made the playoffs the second year. Sam Lacey, an effective passing center, became one of the most dependable players in the league. Archibald became the first player to lead the league in scoring and assists in the first season in Kansas City. However, the management traded Archibald, and wasted high draft picks. Bob Cousy gave way to Phil Johnson, who was fired midyear in 1977 and replaced by Larry Staverman, a player on the team on two separate occasions when it was in Cincinnati and who later became the Cleveland Indians groundskeeper.
The Kings finally achieved some success in their new home when they hired Cotton Fitzsimmons as coach. Coach Fitzsimmons won the Midwest Division in 1978-79 with rookie point guard Phil Ford. Kansas City was led by shooting guard Otis Birdsong, strong on both offense and defense, all around shooting forward Scott Wedman, and passing center Sam Lacey, who had a trademark 25 foot bank shot. They also drew an average of 10,789 fans to Kemper Arena that season, the only time during their tenure in KC that average attendance was in five figures. The Kings made the playoffs in 1979-80 and again in 1980–81, despite finishing the regular season at 40–42. The Kings made a surprise run in the NBA Playoffs, reaching the Western Conference Finals. Big Ernie Grunfeld played the point in this run, as KC used a slow half court game to win the first two rounds. Power forward Reggie King had a remarkable series, dominating the opposition.
However, a series of bad luck incidents prevented the team from building on its success. Ted Stepien, owner of the Cleveland Cavaliers lured Wedman and Birdsong away with big contract offers, the roof literally fell in at Kemper Arena because of a winter storm, forcing the team to play most of the 1979-80 season at Municipal Auditorium, and the ownership group sold the team to Sacramento interests for just eleven million dollars. The general manager was fired in a bizarre scandal in which he was found to be reusing marked postage stamps. When the Kings rehired Joe Axelson as general manager, they brought back the man who had previously traded superstars Oscar Robertson, Norm Van Lier, Nate Archibald and Jerry Lucas, and used the third pick in the ABA dispersal draft on Ron Boone. Axelson would stay on after the Kings left Kansas City where, in their last game ever, fans wore Joe Axelson masks. Axelson later would say he hoped his plane would never touch down in Kansas City.
Axelson later would be the first general manager in the history of sports to fail with the same franchise in four different cities: Cincinnati, Kansas City, Omaha and Sacramento. He would not be fired for good until he rehired as coach Phil Johnson, whom he had fired in midseason in Kansas City ten years before. The Kings also had the misfortune of entering this period competing with the Kansas City Comets for the winter sports dollar, when the Comets were led by marketers - the Leiweke brothers. Their final season, 1984-85, resulted in a dismal 31–51 record as fans stayed away from Kemper Arena in droves, with average attendance of just 6,410. The writing was on the wall for Kansas City.
Move to Sacramento
The Kings moved west to their current home of Sacramento, California, in 1985. Much of their early tenure in Sacramento was spent in the NBA's cellar, and the team made the playoffs only once between 1985 and 1995. Some of their failure was attributable to unimaginable misfortune, such as the career-altering car crash suffered by promising point guard Bobby Hurley and the tragic suicide of Ricky Berry; some was attributable to poor management such as the over-long tenure of head coach Garry St. Jean and the ill-fated selection of "Never Nervous" Pervis Ellison with the first overall pick in the 1989 NBA Draft.
Cellar Dwellers (1991–1996)
The early 1990s were not kind to the Kings. Sacramento was known for having strong fan support, which helped them win over 60% of its home games. But it never had a good team and always struggled on the road, going 1–40 on the road in one single season alone, and its owner James Alford Thomas rarely paid for top talent. The Kings squeaked into the playoffs in 1996 largely due to the effort of star player Mitch Richmond, but they did not distinguish themselves in the postseason. Eventually the team was sold to the Maloof Family, who finally changed the direction of the team.
Ownership Change (1997–1999)
The Kings emerged from years of mediocrity with the draft selection of Jason Williams, the signing of Vlade Divac, and the trade of Mitch Richmond for Chris Webber prior to the lockout-shortened 1998-99 season. These acquisitions coincided with the arrival of Peja Stojakovic, who had been drafted in 1996. Each of these moves was attributed to general manager Geoff Petrie, who has won NBA Executive of the Year several times.
Following these acquisitions, the Kings rose in the NBA ranks, becoming a perennial playoff contender. Led by new head coach Rick Adelman, and aided by former Princeton head coach and Kings assistant Pete Carril, their so-called "Princeton offense" turned heads around the league for its run-and-gun style and superb ball movement. Some criticized the Kings for their poor team defense, Williams's "flash over substance" style of play with its many turnovers, and Webber's failure to step up his game in important matchups. Still, they quickly became NBA darlings, garnering many fans outside of California, and even around the world, many of which were enthralled by Williams's amazing passing abilities and Webber's sharp all-around game. Despite their tremendous successes, they were still a young team, and were ultimately defeated by more experienced teams in the playoffs, losing to the Utah Jazz in 1999 (in a thrilling five-game matchup), and the Los Angeles Lakers in 2000.
Missed Chances (2000–2005)
Following the 2000 season, the Kings traded starting small forward Corliss Williamson to the Toronto Raptors for defensive shooting guard Doug Christie, opening a starting spot for sharpshooter Stojakovic. Stojakovic and his dead-eye long range shot served as the perfect complement to Webber's smooth inside game, taking the Kings' already-potent offense to new heights. With their continued success on court came their continued rise in popularity, culminating in their gracing the cover of Sports Illustrated in February 2001, with the title "The Greatest Show On Court". In 2001, they won their first playoff series in the Webber era (and their first in twenty years), defeating the Phoenix Suns 3–1, before being swept in four games by the Lakers, who went on to win the NBA championship.
In July 2001, Petrie traded starting point guard Jason Williams to the Vancouver/Memphis Grizzlies for point guard Mike Bibby. The trade solved needs on both sides: the Grizzlies, in the process of moving to Memphis, wanted an exciting, popular player to sell tickets in their new home, while the Kings, an up-and-coming team, sought more stability and control at the point guard position. Although questioned by some Kings fans at the time, NBA officials and experts proclaimed Bibby as the better player in the deal, as well as a better leader, having led the Arizona Wildcats to an NCAA championship in 1997. This move was complemented by the crucial re-signing of Webber to a maximum-salary contract, securing the star power forward for years to come.
With the addition of Bibby, the Kings had their best season to date in 2001-02. The team finished with a league-best record of 61-21, going 36-5 at ARCO Arena, and stormed through the first two rounds of the playoffs. The Kings then faced the L.A. Lakers, the two-time defending champions in the western conference finals. In what has been widely acclaimed as one of the greatest playoff series of all time, the Kings were able to jump out to a 2-1 lead. Just when it appeared the Kings would be heading back to Sacramento with a 3-1 series lead, Lakers forward Robert Horry burried a game-winning three-pointer (to win the game 100-99)on a play where Vlade Divac batted the ball to get it out from under the rim. Needless to say, the play backfired. However Game 5 saw Mike Bibby return the favor with a game-winning shot of his own with 3.7 seconds left, the Kings won 92-91. In a highly contested game 6 at the STAPLES Center, the Lakers bested the Kings by four points in a seemingly one-sided game. A statistic of note in this game was that the the Lakers shot 27 fourth quarter free throws compared to the Kings 9.
The seventh and final game is considered by many to be one of the NBA's all-time best game 7s. No team gained a double-digit lead in the game. But it was particularly poor free throw shooting that would doom the Kings; missing 14 of their 30 free throw attempts (53.3% shooting). This Kings team wouldn't get a better chance to get to the NBA Finals.
After winning another division championship by going 59-23 in 2002–03, the Kings lost Webber to a knee injury in the playoffs, ultimately losing to the Dallas Mavericks in a seven game series. Webber's knee required major surgery. Although he would return mid-season in 2003–04, he had lost much of his explosiveness and athleticism. The Kings would end the season with a playoff defeat to the Minnesota Timberwolves in seven games.
The 2004–05 season marked another season of dramatic change for the Kings, who lost three of their starters from the 2002 team. In the offseason of 2004, Divac opted to sign with the rival Lakers, giving Brad Miller a starting spot at center. Early in the season, Christie was traded to the Orlando Magic for shooting guard Cuttino Mobley. But the most dramatic change came in February, when Webber was traded to the Philadelphia 76ers for three relatively unheralded forwards: Corliss Williamson, Kenny Thomas, and Brian Skinner. The Kings ultimately lost in the first round of the playoffs to the Seattle SuperSonics. The 2005 offseason continued the team transformation, with the Kings trading fan favorite Bobby Jackson for Bonzi Wells and acquiring free agent forward Shareef Abdur-Rahim.
The 2005-06 season started off poorly, as the Kings had a hard time finding chemistry in the team. Newcomers Bonzi Wells and Shareef Abdur-Rahim made major contributions early in the season, but both fell victim to the injury bug and missed a significant number of games. As the Kings' dismal season continued, the Maloofs decided to make a major move.
Popular sharpshooting small forward Peja Stojakovic was traded for Ron Artest, long known for his volatile temper. With this trade, the Kings begin the Artest era until its ultimate end. With Artest in the lineup, the Kings had a 20-9 record after the 2006 NBA All-Star Weekend, which was the second best post-All-Star break record that season. The Kings finished the regular season with a 44-38 record, which placed them 4th in the Pacific Division. The Kings obtained the 8th seed of the Western Conference playoffs, and were matched up in the first round against the San Antonio Spurs in a seven-game series. The Spurs beat the Kings in the first round 4-2.
In 2006-2007, the disappointing play of the Kings had been coupled with the distraction of legal troubles. Coach Eric Musselman pleaded no contest to DUI charges early in the season, while star Ron Artest got in to trouble for neglect of his dogs, and was later arrested for domestic assault. The Kings dismissed Artest of basketball duties, pending more investigation in to the matter, and was later reinstated. The Kings finished the 2006–07 NBA season with an overall record of 33-49 (their worst in 9 years) in which they were 20-21 at ARCO Arena for the first time since 93-94 and 13-28 on the road; fifth place in the Pacific Division. This season record included a seven game losing-streak that started on January 4 and ended on January 19. Consequently, the Sacramento Kings went on to miss the 2007 NBA Playoffs, the first time in eight seasons. Coach Eric Musselman was fired on April 20, 2007. The Kings' future appears to rest on the shoulders of breakout star Kevin Martin, who was a leading candidate for 2007 NBA Most-Improved Player of the Year. The 2007 off season was a time of change for the Kings. Kings coach Eric Musselman was replaced by former Kings player, Reggie Theus for head coach. Fans and sports analysts were puzzled by the hire, especially with Larry Brown expressing great interest in coaching the team. On [June 28, 2007, the Kings selected center Spencer Hawes as the 10th overall pick in the 2007 NBA Draft.
In addition to these changes, the Sacramento Kings acquired center-forward Mikki Moore from the New Jersey Nets. Kevin Martin signed a contract worth $55 million, extending his period with the team for five more years.
However, the Kings also lost some key players over the offseason, with backup point guard Ronnie Price leaving for the Utah Jazz, and Corliss Williamson retiring.
The team claimed fourth-year point guard Beno Udrih off waivers from Minnesota. Udrih quickly assumed the starting point guard job, as Bibby was injured.
It was announced on February 16, 2008 that the Kings had traded longtime point guard Bibby to the Atlanta Hawks for Tyronn Lue, Anthony Johnson, Shelden Williams, Lorenzen Wright and a 2nd round draft pick. The move was done mostly to clear cap space for the future. Bibby was the last remaining original player that got the Kings to the Western Conference Finals back in 2002.
The Kings improved by 5 games and finished the 07-08 season with a 38-44 missing the playoffs by a much bigger margin (12 games) than the previous season (8 games). They went 26-15 at home and 12-29 on the road. After selling out every home game since 1999 the Kings only sold out the three home games (against the Celtics and Lakers) during the 07-08 season averaging 13,500 fans per home game, almost 4,000 below capacity. Many home games struggled to put 15,000 in with empty seats common.
Following a quiet 2008 offseason, it was confirmed on July 29, 2008 that the Kings would trade forward Ron Artest and the rights to Patrick Ewing Jr and Sean Singletary to the Houston Rockets in exchange for former King Bobby Jackson, Donté Greene, a future first round draft pick, and cash considerations .
With new pressures on the Kings to rebuild and return to their glory days, General Manager Geoff Petrie is assembling a new younger more talented squad to hopefully carry the team. With the youthful faces of Kevin Martin, who averages over 20 points and is known for his consistent shooting, and the likes of Francisco Garcia, Bobby Brown, and Beno Udrih, the Kings are optimistic for their future.
A main concern at the moment is their coaching position with the firing of Reggie Theus earlier in the 2008-09 season. With Interim Head Coach Kenny Natt, the Kings have continued to struggle, which leaves the franchise with many questions on the coaching role for next season.
Along with many of the NBA teams, the 2010 free agent market will be of great importance and interest with many big names on the list like Lebron James, Chris Bosh, and Paul Pierce. The Kings will definitely need another key player to lead them back into the playoffs and possible championship title.
In light of declining attendance at ARCO ArenaTemplate:Fact, and also in light of the increasing obsolescence of the building compared to newer NBA venuesTemplate:Fact, there was a campaign to build a new $600 million facility in downtown Sacramento, which was to be funded by a quarter cent sales tax increase over 15 years. In 2006, voters overwhelmingly rejected ballot measures Q and R, leading to the NBA publicly calling for a new arena to be built at another well-known Sacramento facility, Cal Expo, the site of California's state fair. Negotiations between the Cal Expo governing board and the NBA (serving on behalf of the Maloof family) are ongoing; the Cal Expo board is looking for improvements to the entire facility (including $40 million in deferred maintenance) as well as a new arena. The NBA promises that no public money will be used for the project; the Cal Expo board has long sought state legislation that would allow Cal Expo to form a joint-powers authority to issue bonds and lease land to developers, it is thought that negotiations for an NBA arena will more quickly bring this to fruition.
The arena talks with Cal Expo broke down. The new target became the rail yards in downtown Sacramento. Estimates came in at just below $400 million. Meanwhile, the Maloofs looked at moving the Kings for the 2011-2012 season. NBA commissioner David Stern confirmed during the All-Star break in Orlando during the 2010-2011 season that the Maloofs were currently talking to officials about moving to Anaheim, specifically the Honda Center. The Anaheim city council even voted for improvements to the Honda Center to better present an NBA team. When the news broke, Kings fans along with Sacramento mayor Kevin Johnsnon started showing massive support to keep the Kings in Sacramento. During the NBA Board of Governors meeting in New York, both the Maloofs and Kevin Johnson made their cases: the Maloofs wanted a new arena for the long term stability of the Kings and mayor Kevin Johnson wanted the Kings to and presented his plan to build a new arena. After a long wait and a few deadline extensions, the Maloofs decided to stay in Sacramento at least one more year.
The Kings, Maloofs, and the city of Sacramento coninued to work towards a solid deal. Finally, they reached a deal: arena building contractor AEG would pay $50 million, the Maloofs would pay $75 million, and the rest would come from leases on parking structures in Sacramento along with selling land. The deal was approved by the Sacramento city council. On February 28, 2012, Kevin Johnson and the Maloofs stood center court during a Kings home game and the Maloofs declared a new arena for Sacramento would come in 2015. The happiness was short lived. In April, the Maloofs backed out of the deal. The Maloofs didn't want to pay for the $200,000 bill for the pre work for the arena and didn't feel confident that the plan was financially stable. The Maloofs could back out because no official agreement had been made. AEG dropped out in July as well.
The relocation talks died down, but not for long. On January 9, 2013, a tweet leaked that the Maloofs were in talks with the Hansen group in Seattle to move the team to Seattle. If the deal went through, Seattle would probably rename the Kings "SuperSonics" like their prior team was named before it was moved to Oklahoma City in 2008 and became the Thunder. Multiple reports came out throughout the day, including that the Maloofs denied the deal to that the Maloofs had made a solid "handshake"deal and the Kings had been sold. Mayor Kevin Johnson broke his silence, saying that the city of Sacramento had been in the same situation with Anaheim and they would put off a big fight to keep the Kings in Sacramento. He reminded people of Anaheim and even the Giants, who almost moved to Florida from San Francisco in the 90s. Amid the uncertainty, Kings fans still came out on the 10th to see the Kings take on the Mavs. To many, that was the most electric crowd of the season. Kings commentator Grant Napear also gave an emotional intro during the opening of his radio show about how great the Kings are to the city of Sacramento and its fans. The Maloofs continued to be secretive about their discussions, but the NBA confirmed that the possible deal was spoke about to the NBA Board of Gorvernors. Kings fans organized the Here We Buy campaign, considering that this is the first indication that the Kings were for sale. An online petition was started. Kevin Johnson also said he had come up with many investors interested in buying the Kings and had $400+ million available to make a counter offer, which would include the guarantee of a new arena. AEG also reported that they were still interested in helping build an arena in Sacramento. With these things in mind, NBA Commissioner David Stern decided that this plan could be presented by Johnson in front of the Board of Governors. Sacramento is now officially in its "six week sprint" to save the Kings from moving to Seattle before the relocation request deadline on March 1st.
- ↑ Kelly Johnson (2006-11-08). "Railyard arena backers will keep trying". Sacramento Business Journal. http://sacramento.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2006/11/06/daily20.html. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
- ↑ Kelly Johnson (2007-09-21). "Cal Expo board agrees to consider arena, mixed-use project". Sacramento Business Journal. http://sacramento.bizjournals.com/sacramento/stories/2007/09/24/story4.html?f=et183&b=1190606400^1524469&ana=e_vert. Retrieved 2008-04-22.
1949 & 1950
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1952 & 1953 & 1954