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Toyota Center (Houston)

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Toyota Center
100px
Toyota Center entr
Location 1510 Polk Street
Houston, Texas 77002
Broke ground July 31, 2001
Opened October 6, 2003
Owner Harris County - Houston Sports Authority
Operator Clutch City Sports and Entertainment
Construction cost $202 million
Architect Morris Architects
Populous[1] (formerly HOK Sport)
John Chase Architects
Structural Engineer Walter P Moore[2]
Services Engineer Bovay Engineers, Inc.[3]
General Contractor Hunt Construction Group[4]
Tenants Houston Rockets (NBA) (2003–present)
Houston Aeros (AHL) (2003–present)
Houston Comets (WNBA) (2003–2007)
Capacity Basketball: 18,043
Ice Hockey: 17,800
Concerts: 19,000

The Toyota Center is an indoor arena located in downtown Houston, Texas. It is named after the Japanese automobile manufacturer Toyota. The arena is home to the Rockets of the National Basketball Association, the principal owners of the building, and the Aeros of the American Hockey League.

Rockets owner Leslie Alexander first began to request a new arena in 1995, and attempted to release the Rockets from their lease at The Summit, which ran until 2003. However, he was denied by arena owner Chuck Watson, then-owner of the Aeros, who also wanted control of a new arena. The two sides agreed to equal control over an arena in a deal signed in 1997, but the proposal was rejected by city voters in a 1999 referendum. It was not until the city and the Rockets signed an amended agreement in 2001, excluding the Aeros, that the proposal was accepted.

Construction began in July 2001, and the new arena was officially opened in September 2003. The total costs were $235 million, with the city of Houston paying the majority, and the Rockets paying for enhancements. Toyota paid $100 million for the naming rights.

History

Toyota Center inside

The interior of the arena during a Rockets game.

Houston Toyota Center Interior, 2013

Inside the Toyota Center, with the new scoreboard, 2013.

In May 1995, several Texas sports teams, including the Houston Rockets, proposed legislation that would dedicate state tax revenue to build new arenas.[5] Although the bill was failed in the Texas House of Representatives,[6][7] Rockets owner Leslie Alexander announced he would continue to study the possibility of constructing a new arena in downtown Houston,[8] saying the 20-year old Summit arena was too outdated to be profitable.[9] Although the Summit's management said they could renovate the building for a small part of the cost of a new arena,[10] the Rockets began talks with the city of Houston on a possible location for an arena,[11] They also negotiated with Houston Aeros and Summit owner, Chuck Watson, to release them from their contract with the Summit, which ran until 2003.[12]

As the negotiations continued into 1996, a panel appointed by Houston mayor Bob Lanier reported that building a new arena was "essential to keep pro sports in Houston".[13] After Watson rejected a contract buyout proposal of $30 million,[14] the Rockets filed a legal challenge against their lease,[15] stating the "need to be able to buy out" of the lease.[16] However, the city of Houston filed a counterclaim to force the Rockets to stay at the Summit, saying that if the Rockets did not honor their contract, then they might "have no incentive to honor any new agreement with the city of Houston to play in a new downtown sports arena".[17] The validity of the lease was eventually upheld,[18] and in April 1997, Lanier announced that the Rockets and Watson would have to agree to share control of the new arena equally, or lose access to it altogether.[19] After both parties agreed to the terms,[20] a bill that authorized increased taxes to pay for a new arena was signed into law in July, by then-Governor George W. Bush.[21]

However, after the National Hockey League decided not to consider Houston as a location for an expansion team because of the indecision over the new arena, Lanier said that he would not have a referendum in November.[22] The Rockets began an appeal in January 1998 against the court order to stay at the Summit,[23] but then dropped it in May, because they felt that a new arena would be ready by the time they finished their lease.[24] In January 1999, recently elected mayor Lee Brown guaranteed a referendum on the issue before the end of the year.[25] After several months negotiating with the Harris County-Houston Sports Authority, the Rockets finalized a deal to pay half of the constructions costs, and a referendum was set for November 2.[26] The deal was approved by Brown and the Houston City Council,[27] but Watson started an opposition group against the referendum,[28] saying the arena was "not in Houston's interest".[29] On November 3, the results of the referendum were announced, and the arena proposal was rejected by 54% of voters.[30] Alexander said "we never thought we would lose" and that they were "devastated by the loss".[30]

After the vote, NBA commissioner David Stern said "if there's not a new building...I think it's certain that the team will be relocated."[31] The Houston Sports Authority had not planned to meet with the Rockets until after the 1998-99 NBA season ended, but after the Rockets began to talk to other cities about relocation, they resumed talks in February 2000.[32] Although the Rockets continued to negotiate with Louisville, Kentucky.[33] a funding plan for the arena in Houston was released in June.[34] A final agreement was proposed on July 6,[35] and both the Rockets and mayor Brown agreed to the terms.[36][37] After the city council approved the deal,[38] the proposal was placed on the November referendum ballot.[39] Leading up to the vote, the Rockets stressed that there would be "no new taxes of any kind",[40] although opponents said the new arena would raise energy consumption, and also contended that the public would pay for too much of the costs of the arena.[41] Contributions for the campaign for the arena included donations of $400,000 from Reliant Energy, and a total of $590,000 in loans and contributions from Enron and Ken Lay,[42] who the Rockets said was a "tireless" force in the campaign.[43] On November 8, the arena was approved by 66% of voters.[44]

Construction

File:Houston Toyota Center -.jpg
ToyotaCenterTundraGarage

Toyota Center Tundra Parking Garage

According to the agreement signed, the city of Houston bought the land for the arena and an adjoining parking garage,[45] which was near the George R. Brown Convention Center,[46] and paid for it by selling bonds and borrowing $30 million.[47][48] Morris Architects, designed the 750,000 square foot building, and Hunt Construction was contracted to build the arena.[49] A building formerly owned by Houston Lighting and Power Company was demolished to make way for the arena, and two streets were closed for the duration of the construction.[50] A groundbreaking ceremony was held on July 31, 2001,[51] and construction continued for 26 months.[50]

At the request of Alexander, the arena was built 32 feet below street level, so fans would not have to walk up stairs to reach their seats.[49] To sink the arena, $12 million was spent to excavate 31,500 cubic yards of dirt over four months,[50] which was the largest excavation in Houston history.[52] Concrete was poured for the foundation throughout the summer of 2002, and structural work began in October. The roof was set on in December, as work continued inside, with a peak workforce of 650. In September 2003, a ribbon-cutting ceremony was held to mark the official opening of the arena.[50] The total cost of construction was $235 million, with the city paying $182 million, and the Rockets adding $43 million for additions and enhancements.[53]

Arena interior

The arena can seat 18,300 for basketball, 17,800 for hockey, and 19,300 for concerts.[47] The price for courtside seats to a Rockets game in the new arena were raised by as much as 50% compared to prices in the team's old home, while upper-deck seat prices were lowered.[54] It has 2,900 club seats and 103 luxury suites, and the 2,500-space Toyota Tundra garage is connected to the arena by a private skybridge.[55]

Levy Restaurants manages concession services at the arena, and offers fast food on the main concourses, while also catering a VIP restaurant for suite-holders.[56] Alexander personally chose colors for the restaurant to help customers feel "warm and comfortable", and Rockets president George Postolos said that the Rockets looked "for a relationship with the people that attend events in our venue".[52] A 40 foot by 32 foot centerhung video system, which has four main replay screens and eight other full-color displays, hangs from the ceiling of the arena, and has the highest-resolution display of any North American sports facility. The arena has two additional displays located at each end of the court, and a "state-of-the-art" audio system.[52] All of the LED technology came from Daktronics.[57]

Sponsorship

Toyota Center satellite view

Toyota's logo is seen on the roof of the arena.

In July 2003, the arena was named the Toyota Center, after Toyota agreed to pay $100 million for naming rights, the fourth-largest deal for a sports arena in the United States at the time. The logo of the company was placed on the roof of the building, as well in other prominent places inside the arena, and the company was given "a dominant presence" in commercials shown during broadcasts of games played in the arena.[58]

Events

The arena's first event was a Fleetwood Mac concert on October 6, 2003, and the first Rockets game at the Toyota Center was against the Denver Nuggets on October 30.[59]

In its first year, the total attendance for events at the arena exceeded 1.5 million. The arena was also the winner of the Allen Award for Civic Enhancement by Central Houston, the "Rookie of the Year" award by the Harlem Globetrotters, and a finalist for Pollstar Magazine’s "Best New Concert Venue" award.[55] The current attendance for a concert held at the arena was set on November 20, 2008, when Metallica played to a sold out crowd during the Death Magnetic tour.[60] The record for a basketball game is 18,501, set on May 14, 2009, when the Rockets defeated the Los Angeles Lakers in Game 6 of the Western Conference Semifinals, 95-80.[61]

The Ultimate Fighting Championship held UFC 69 on April 7, 2007 and held UFC 136 on October 8, 2011.

The arena hosted the 9th Annual Latin Grammy Awards on November 13, 2008.

Many concerts have found place, in the Toyota Center like Andrea Bocelli, Coldplay, Nickelback, Depeche Mode, Bon Jovi, Enrique Iglesias, Lady Gaga, Katy Perry, Shakira, Beyoncé, Britney Spears, Miley Cyrus, Taylor Swift and The Rolling Stones.

Professional wrestling

The Toyota Center has hosted many WWE events, including Raw and SmackDown. On October 9, 2005 the Toyota center hosted WWE No Mercy. On June 24, 2007, it hosted WWE Vengeance: Night of Champions. On April 4, 2009, it hosted the induction ceremony for the WWE Hall of Fame class of 2009. On December 19, 2010 the arena hosted TLC: Tables, Ladders & Chairs. It also hosted WWE SmackDown on March 8, 2011, which aired March 11, 2011.

References

  1. Toyota Center architect: Populous
  2. http://www.emporis.com/building/toyotacenter-houston-tx-usa?lng=3
  3. http://www.bovayengineers.com/markets/sports.html
  4. http://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Journal/Issues/2003/11/20031117/Facilities/Rockets-Launch-A-New-Era-At-Toyota-Center.aspx
  5. William, John (May 2, 1995). "Backers take another run at stadium". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1995_1271363. Retrieved 13 March 2009. 
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  15. Flynn, George; Mason, Julie (December 17, 1996). "Rockets challenge their lease". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1996_1384148. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
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  22. Williams, John (July 18, 1997). "NHL snub halts vote on arena". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1997_1419461. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  23. Williams, John (January 8, 1998). "Rockets appeal court ruling on lease". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1998_3026314. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  24. Williams, John (May 22, 1998). "Rockets owner to drop lawsuit against arena". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1998_3056936. Retrieved 14 March 2009. 
  25. Williams, John; Schwartz, Matt (January 20, 1999). "Mayor plans arena vote for this year". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3112006. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  26. Williams, John (September 1, 1999). "Arena deal sets November referendum". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3161655. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  27. Schwartz, Matt (September 30, 1999). "Council gives symbolic nod to arena deal". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3168037. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  28. Williams, John (October 15, 1999). "Aeros owner vows funds to defeat downtown arena". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3171302. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  29. Herskowitz, Mickey (October 31, 1999). "Watson presents case for voting down referendum". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3175049. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  30. 30.0 30.1 Williams, John; Freemantle, Tony. Rodrigues, Janette (November 3, 1999). "Port bonds win; arena dunked". http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=1999_3175254. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  31. Blinebury, Fran (February 13, 2000). "Stern ultimatum hits close to home". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3195424. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  32. Berger, Eric (February 16, 2000). "Rockets meeting a `good start'". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3195725. Retrieved 16 March 2009. 
  33. Berger, Eric (May 13, 2000). "Louisville woos Rockets". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3214398. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  34. Berger, Eric (June 1, 2000). "Plan to pay for arena revealed". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3218586. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  35. Berger, Eric (July 6, 2000). "City officials say new deal for arena affordable". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3225958. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  36. Berger, Eric (July 13, 2000). "Rockets OK arena terms". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3227449. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  37. Berger, Eric; Dean, Richard (July 26, 2000). "Negotiators pack up, declare victory on sports arena deal". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3230232. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  38. Berger, Eric (September 14, 2000). "City agrees to Rockets arena deal". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3242055. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  39. Berger, Eric (September 2, 2000). "Round 2: Arena placed on ballot". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3239690. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  40. Berger, Eric (October 6, 2000). "Focus of pro-arena ads: No new taxes". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3247856. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  41. Tedford, Deborah (October 22, 2000). "Coalition opposes arena plans". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3251734. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  42. Rodriguez, Lori (January 7, 2001). "Persistence pays off". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3272079. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  43. Graves, Rachel (January 25, 2002). "Enron chief's departure creates huge civic void". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2002_3512118. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  44. Berger, Eric (November 9, 2000). "Margin of victory for arena vote called `bizarre'". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2000_3256380. Retrieved 19 March 2009. 
  45. Brewer, Steve (March 5, 2001). "Rockets told to be judicious about arena changes". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3294318. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  46. Graves, Rachel (January 26, 2001). "Sports authority starts to condemn arena lots". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3276609. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  47. 47.0 47.1 Brewer, Steve (October 25, 2001). "Sports authority sets up interim financing for arena". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3343747. Retrieved 28 March 2009. 
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  49. 49.0 49.1 Warren, Audrey (July 24, 2001). "Don't like stairs? Come on down! New arena to be below street level". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3321526. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 50.2 50.3 Manfull, Megan (October 5, 2003). "Newest addition to East Side has city officials feeling rejuvenated". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2003_3696210. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
  51. "New arena takes off". Houston Chronicle. August 1, 2001. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2001_3323430. Retrieved 28 March 2009. 
  52. 52.0 52.1 52.2 Lopez, John P. (September 2, 2003). "From the ground up, Alexander keeps fans' needs in mind". Houston Chronicle. http://www.chron.com/CDA/archives/archive.mpl?id=2003_3696194. Retrieved 30 March 2009. 
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